Kubernetes CIS Benchmark: Why You Need It and Getting Started
What Are CIS Benchmarks?
The Center for Internet Security (CIS) is a nonprofit organization that works to promote cybersecurity best practices and provide resources and guidance for organizations to improve their cybersecurity posture.
CIS provides a set of benchmarks—each referencing a CIS control—that are used to measure an organization’s cybersecurity posture and identify areas that need improvement. The benchmarks provide recommendations for securely configuring various technologies, such as operating systems, databases, and web servers. The controls are a set of cybersecurity best practices that organizations can implement to improve their overall security posture.
CIS benchmarks and controls are based on established regulations and standards such as NIST, ISO, and others. They are developed through a consensus-based process that involves input from a broad range of stakeholders, including industry experts, vendors, and government agencies.
What Is the Kubernetes CIS Benchmark?
The Kubernetes CIS benchmark is a set of security best practices and recommendations developed by the Center for Internet Security (CIS) for securing Kubernetes environments. The benchmark includes 100+ checks across various areas such as authentication, authorization, network policies, and logging, among others. It provides guidance on how to configure Kubernetes securely and reduce the risk of common attacks. The benchmark is regularly updated to reflect changes in the Kubernetes ecosystem and emerging security best practices.
This is part of a series of articles about Kubernetes security.
In this article:
Benefits of the CIS Benchmark for Kubernetes Security
The use of the CIS Kubernetes benchmark offers several benefits for organizations seeking to improve their security posture.
Implementing the CIS Kubernetes benchmark ensures that your Kubernetes environment is configured securely and meets industry-standard security best practices. This can help reduce the risk of successful cyberattacks and prevent data breaches.
Up-to-Date Security Guidance for Containers
The CIS Kubernetes benchmark is regularly updated to reflect changes in the Kubernetes ecosystem and emerging security best practices. This ensures that your Kubernetes environment is always aligned with the latest security guidance for containers.
Simpler Implementation of Vulnerability Assessments
The CIS Kubernetes benchmark provides a standardized set of security checks that can be used to assess the security of your Kubernetes environment. This simplifies the implementation of vulnerability assessments and ensures that all critical security areas are covered.
Access to Container Security Expertise and Collective Knowledge
The benchmark is developed through a consensus-based process that involves input from a broad range of stakeholders, including industry experts, vendors, and government agencies. This ensures that the benchmark reflects the collective knowledge and expertise of the cybersecurity community.
Standardized Security Processes
Implementing the CIS Kubernetes benchmark helps standardize your security processes by providing a set of security best practices that can be followed across your organization. This reduces the risk of inconsistencies and ensures that security is implemented consistently across all Kubernetes environments. It also makes scaling containerized environments easier because the security measures are easily reproducible.
Compliance with the Main Security Frameworks
The CIS Kubernetes benchmark references the main security and compliance frameworks, such as NIST, SOC 2, HIPAA, and PCI DSS. This ensures that your Kubernetes environment is aligned with the most important security and compliance requirements and can help you meet regulatory requirements.
Learn more in our detailed guides to: Kubernetes security policy and Kubernetes security checklist
8 Key Areas Covered by the Kubernetes CIS Benchmark
The Kubernetes CIS Benchmark covers several key areas to ensure the proper configuration and security of Kubernetes deployments. Here are some of the main areas covered by the Kubernetes CIS Benchmark:
- Cluster configuration: This area focuses on the proper configuration of the Kubernetes control plane components, including the API server, etcd server, controller manager, and scheduler. Recommendations include configuring TLS for communication between components, setting appropriate permissions, and enabling security features like audit logging.
- Worker node configuration: This section addresses the security of worker nodes and the components running on them, such as kubelet and container runtime. Recommendations include configuring security settings, restricting access to the kubelet API, and enabling security features like seccomp, AppArmor, and SELinux.
- Network policies: Network policies are used to control traffic flow between pods and services within the cluster. The benchmark provides guidance on implementing network policies that restrict ingress and egress traffic to the minimum necessary for each application.
- Role-Based Access Control (RBAC): The benchmark emphasizes the importance of implementing RBAC to restrict access to Kubernetes resources based on roles and responsibilities. This includes defining roles and role bindings, setting up namespace-level access controls, and ensuring that the principle of least privilege is followed.
- Secrets management: Properly managing and protecting sensitive data, such as API keys and credentials, is crucial for Kubernetes security. The benchmark offers guidance on securely storing and managing secrets, as well as using encryption for data at rest and in transit.
- Logging and monitoring: Ensuring that Kubernetes components generate logs and that monitoring is in place to detect security issues is vital. The benchmark provides recommendations on enabling audit logging, setting up log retention policies, and configuring monitoring tools.
- Pod security policies: Implementing pod security policies helps restrict the capabilities of containers running within the cluster. The benchmark covers recommendations on limiting the use of privileged containers, restricting host network and filesystem access, and setting resource limits for containers.
- Container security: The benchmark also addresses the security of container images, including using trusted image sources, scanning images for vulnerabilities, and ensuring that containers run with minimal privileges.
Getting Started with the Kubernetes CIS Benchmark
Getting started with the Kubernetes CIS Benchmark involves understanding the recommendations, assessing your current Kubernetes environment, and implementing the necessary security measures. Here’s a step-by-step guide to help you get started:
- Obtain the Kubernetes CIS Benchmark document: Download the latest version of the Kubernetes CIS Benchmark from the Center for Internet Security (CIS) website.
- Familiarize yourself with the recommendations: Read through the Kubernetes CIS Benchmark document and gain an understanding of the security recommendations it provides.
- Assess your current environment: Evaluate your current Kubernetes environment against the recommendations provided in the benchmark. This will help you identify areas where your configuration may not be aligned with best practices, as well as any potential security gaps that need to be addressed.
- Create an action plan: Based on the assessment results, develop an action plan to address the identified security gaps and implement the necessary security measures. Prioritize the recommendations based on the risk they pose to your environment and the effort required for implementation.
- Implement the recommendations: Begin implementing the recommendations in your action plan, starting with the highest-priority items. Some recommendations may require changes to your Kubernetes configuration, while others may involve implementing additional security controls, such as network policies or role-based access control.
- Monitor and maintain security: Once you’ve implemented the recommendations, continuously monitor your Kubernetes environment to ensure that the security measures remain effective. Keep track of any changes in your environment that could impact security and adjust your configurations as needed. Regularly review the Kubernetes CIS Benchmark to stay up-to-date with the latest best practices and recommendations.
Kubernetes CIS Benchmark with Calico
With continuous monitoring and reporting of misconfigurations in Kubernetes environments based on CIS benchmarks, Calico’s configuration security capabilities enable users to prevent breaches by using industry benchmarks to harden their Kubernetes configuration. With Calico, users can:
- Manage configuration security by generating CIS benchmark reports across all the dynamic assets that may have existed in their Kubernetes environment.
- Gain valuable insight into workload security posture with customizable pass/fail thresholds.
- Customize compliance reports and prioritize issues when assessing workloads against hardening standards such as CIS benchmarks.